Many times, researchers are interested in predicting categorical variables or specific outcomes. An example of a categorical variable, would be students passing an exam (e.g., pass or fail). In this case of passing an exam, there would be two categories, either students pass or fail an exam. In situations like this, researchers may be interested in determining specific factors that predict or explain categories within a categorical variable of interest. Using our example of passing an exam, researchers may be interested in determining the factors that most influence whether a student passes or fails an exam. Time spent studying, previous exam scores, and time spent working a tutor are all examples of variables that might influence whether or not a student passes an exam.